Thursday, February 6, 2020

Customer Integration and Satisfaction Forum 5 TLMT 441 Assignment

Customer Integration and Satisfaction Forum 5 TLMT 441 - Assignment Example During the September 1 attack on the U.S, the terrorists hijacked a passenger carrier airplane sending worrying signals to customers regarding their safety. Customer’s reaction in relation to the safety concern is evident in all motor carriers within the U.S. In examining whether strategic change is essential for the long-term benefits of an organization, the study: To change or not to change, takes a close examination on customer’s feelings regarding all motor carriers’ firms’ response after the September 11 incident (Atwater et al, 2011). The data gathered indicates a huge disruption and downturns following the terrorist attack. For example, the normal operations in the motor carriers firms declined by more than half. Although, some carriers changed their strategies after the attacks, performance was still not impressing. All the carriers performed awful following the attacks as customers grew fear irrespective of any security measures the firms included (Atwater et al, 2011). As a matter of fact, a declined performance was achieved by firs that opted change their strategies as opposed to those that stuck with earlier strategies. In conclusion, adopting strategic measures after a strategic surprise is not a guarantee of developing customer satisfaction (Kotler, 2010). As evidenced through the change of strategy by the carrier firms that changed their strategy following the September 11 terrorist attacks. Other than adopting strategic changes, the study finds out that customer satisfaction and integration is a continuous

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Worlds cheap products Essay Example for Free

Worlds cheap products Essay This shows that he is expressing his anger for the worlds cheap products through his work, repressing it as a statue, called Ogun. The form of this poem is very simple with short sharp sentences and two lined stanzas, that give a cold feeling of wanting to put his point across more than anything else. The tone of the poem is mostly anger of the writers uncle because of the fact no one will buy his goods. The world just wants cheap, soulless things, and his tradition and identity suffer as a result. In Nothings Changed the main message put across is that although racism has changed with laws and such, the feelings that remain are exactly the same. This fits in with the suffering of identity because even when laws have been passed and it says you can be a certain place, or do a certain thing, you still feel like you cant and that you are treated the same, because of the colour of your skin. The message of this is brought across with several techniques. The imagery gives a feeling of hurt and deceit, and of a gut feeling of everything being the same it makes you think of pain that has happened, and that will continue to happen. The reader gets a feeling that the place is wasteland with rubbish and rubble everywhere, like a ghost town deserted and quiet. The language of the poem is thoughtful and heartfelt. The first part of the poem tells us that the man in the poem is breathing heavily, scared, frightened because of the terrain he is walking through.  And the soft labouring of my lungs, and the hot, white, inwards turning anger of my eyes  This tells us he is bottling up his feelings about the place and that he is angry because of what had gone on there before. He cannot get the anger out of his system nor does he feel welcome in this place; he feels a connection with the weeds on the floor, both unwanted and uncared for. As the poem goes on it tells you he is more angry and powerless because nothing has changed from when he was a child: I back from the glass, boy again  He tells us that he still feels a victim of apartheid, weak, small and powerless, because everything is the same as when he was a child. Even though things have physically changed, things will never mentally change. Some of the words in the poem such as haute cuisine gives an effect of expense and exoticness so that only rich people could afford it, which lets you know that things are strange to the writer. The form of this poem is put across in short simple words. The first stanza tries to imitate footsteps.  Small round hard stones click, under my heels  The tone of the poem is angry, upset, hurt and very serious this is put across by the whole feel of the poem to show that he feels out of place, in the place he was brought up. This inevitably causes pain and inner suffering The poets want to put across the fact that readers should learn and understand that just because something is different, it may be a lot better than what you thought, and that you should treat people as you wish to be treated and not discriminate. They also show that poets from other cultures and traditions show suffering because of their identity because people are prejudiced and feel threatened by something that is different. The poets suffer because they do not feel as if they can fit in, as people treat them differently or are not so easy to get on with as someone from the same sort of background.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Solitude/Isolation in The Birthmark and in Hawthorne’s Life Essay

Solitude/Isolation in â€Å"The Birthmark† and in Hawthorne’s Life  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚        Ã‚   In the Nathaniel Hawthorne tale, â€Å"The Birthmark,† we see and feel the solitude/isolation of the scientist, Aylmer, in his laboratory; also of Georgiana in the totally separated lab apartment; also of Aminadab, who lives by himself in a room off of the laboratory. Are these examples of solitude not a reflection of the very life of the author?    According to A.N. Kaul in his Introduction to   Hawthorne – A Collection of Critical Essays, the themes of isolation and alienation were ones which Hawthorne was â€Å"deeply preoccupied with† in his writings (2). Hawthorne’s personal isolation from people from 1825 to 1837 was probably due to his lifelong shyness among people. This reluctance to freely socialize may have been a result of a foot injury: â€Å"an injury to his foot at the age of nine reduced his physical activity for almost two years† (Martin 16). Wagenknecht says in Nathaniel   Hawthorne – The Man, His Tales and Romances, that this accident â€Å"reduced him for over two years to a state of invalidism that probably contributed toward developing his taste for reading† (2). Or Nathaniel Hawthorne’s shyness was perhaps due to the death of his father when he was but four years old. Regarding the impact of this death upon Hawthorne, Edmund Fuller and B. Jo Kinnick in â €Å"Stories Derived from New England Living,† say:    When the news came of his father’s death, Hawthorne’s mother withdrew into her upstairs bedroom, coming out only rarely during the remaining forty years of her life. The boy and his two sisters lived in almost complete isolation from her and from each other (29).    The Norton Anthology: American Literature states that as a coll... ... Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1996.    Hawthorne, Nathaniel . The Birthmark Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library    James, Henry. Hawthorne. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997.    Kaul, A.N. â€Å"Introduction.† In Hawthorne – A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by A.N. Kaul. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966.    Martin, Terence. Nathaniel Hawthorne. New York: Twayne Publishers Inc., 1965.      Ã¢â‚¬Å"Nathaniel Hawthorne.† The Norton Anthology: American Literature, edited by Baym et al.   New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1995.    Wagenknecht, Edward. Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Man, His Tales and Romances. New York: Continuum Publishing Co., 1989. Solitude/Isolation in The Birthmark and in Hawthorne’s Life Essay Solitude/Isolation in â€Å"The Birthmark† and in Hawthorne’s Life  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚        Ã‚   In the Nathaniel Hawthorne tale, â€Å"The Birthmark,† we see and feel the solitude/isolation of the scientist, Aylmer, in his laboratory; also of Georgiana in the totally separated lab apartment; also of Aminadab, who lives by himself in a room off of the laboratory. Are these examples of solitude not a reflection of the very life of the author?    According to A.N. Kaul in his Introduction to   Hawthorne – A Collection of Critical Essays, the themes of isolation and alienation were ones which Hawthorne was â€Å"deeply preoccupied with† in his writings (2). Hawthorne’s personal isolation from people from 1825 to 1837 was probably due to his lifelong shyness among people. This reluctance to freely socialize may have been a result of a foot injury: â€Å"an injury to his foot at the age of nine reduced his physical activity for almost two years† (Martin 16). Wagenknecht says in Nathaniel   Hawthorne – The Man, His Tales and Romances, that this accident â€Å"reduced him for over two years to a state of invalidism that probably contributed toward developing his taste for reading† (2). Or Nathaniel Hawthorne’s shyness was perhaps due to the death of his father when he was but four years old. Regarding the impact of this death upon Hawthorne, Edmund Fuller and B. Jo Kinnick in â €Å"Stories Derived from New England Living,† say:    When the news came of his father’s death, Hawthorne’s mother withdrew into her upstairs bedroom, coming out only rarely during the remaining forty years of her life. The boy and his two sisters lived in almost complete isolation from her and from each other (29).    The Norton Anthology: American Literature states that as a coll... ... Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1996.    Hawthorne, Nathaniel . The Birthmark Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library    James, Henry. Hawthorne. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997.    Kaul, A.N. â€Å"Introduction.† In Hawthorne – A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by A.N. Kaul. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966.    Martin, Terence. Nathaniel Hawthorne. New York: Twayne Publishers Inc., 1965.      Ã¢â‚¬Å"Nathaniel Hawthorne.† The Norton Anthology: American Literature, edited by Baym et al.   New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1995.    Wagenknecht, Edward. Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Man, His Tales and Romances. New York: Continuum Publishing Co., 1989.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Mental Disorder and Racism

Racism is the feelings with preference because of your skin, color, wealth, nationality, religious, and many other reasons. It is considered as a psychological disorder that exists in families, societies, and countries. The most common phenomena about racism which we all heard about is the one between black and white Americans, for it began long time ago and remained until these days. This problem between them even reached to our children, for they start also being racist without knowing, and some of them would also prefer white on black.For example, if you give your kid two toys one is white and the other is black, your kid will probably choose the white one, for he thinks it is better and prettier. Racism is spread a lot into our Arabian societies, and it is a disease with no cure. There are many bad results of racism in out societies. The bad effects that racism creates are discrimination between children in the family and discrimination between students in schools. The first effe ct of racism in our societies is the discrimination between children.Many parents prefer one child or more the most, for they are the youngest, the prettiest, the smartest, or the eldest. They start loving one child the most, and they stop giving love and care to others unconsciously, decrease that amount of care and love, stop treating them well, stop giving them attention, and stop giving them their rights eventually. Another example is that parents might not punish their favorite kid when acting bad, but they become so tough and strict when another one does something wrong.At this stage, parents don’t notice how they are discriminating between their children until others start behaving bad, so they know that they are jealous. The second effect of racism is creating problems with children. When parents discriminate between their children, they cause many problems to their kids. This leads to create psychological and mental disorders with them, jealousy, envy, grudge, fights between their kids, violence, and it can also harm their health.Kids start hating their brothers or sisters that their parents prefer, and they start thinking of how to harm them and make them have a bad image, so many fights will occur at this period. Children in their position will totally change with everyone, and they even become violent with the other strange kids. The most dangerous effect on them is the psychological disorders, for it is the hardest to deal with, and it will last with them for a long time if not being noticed early. The mental disorders will walk until it controls their behavior and attitude, and it will have an effect on the children on the long term.According to an article, a researcher says â€Å"If the theoretical models that propose racism as a stressor are correct, then its effects on children need to be studied in the same way as other stressors that have been shown to have negative effects on health and development (for example, poverty, violence, n eglect, abuse, and social upheaval). To assess the state of research into the effects of racism on child health and health care, a review of the literature was undertaken. † (Pediatr, 2009). The third effect of racism in our societies is the discrimination between students.In schools, many students face the fact that they feel some students are discriminated from other students. This action is caused by a lot of reasons such as the nationality, the relationship between the instructor and the student, and other reasons. Many teachers prefer some students because they are from their country, they know their parents, they are pretty, or they very smart, and they ignore those who aren’t smart or related to them in some way. Teachers start giving attention the most to them, give them more marks, become more kind with them, forgive them for their mistakes, and make things easier for them.It is illegal to treat students depending on those things although sometimes the feelings of love towards some students is with no control, but teachers must be careful on how they treat their students equally. The fourth effect of racism is creating problems with students. When a student feels that there is racism caused by the teacher, they wouldn’t accept or like that, for it is unfair. Since teachers know that the preference between students is bad, they must avoid it, so they don’t have to cope with bigger problems.Students start being hateful towards their classmates, being careless about their study, or become violent, and sometimes they start having bigger problems when this affects them even at home. There is no control over your attitude or behavior when there is a feeling of jealousy or racism, and students won’t be able to hide their feelings. The fifth effect of racism in our society is creating preference between different nationalities and religious. In our Arabian society, many people prefer specific people because they have similar nationalities or have the same religious, and you find this everywhere.Every single person thinks that his country and his people are the best among any country, so this person becomes racist with no good reason. In our nature, we unconsciously prefer people who are coming from the same country we come from, and even if they are bad we still prefer them, but this is wrong and its cause is racism. To conclude, it was mentioned that racism is a mental disorder which has many bad effects on us, on our societies, on our kids, and on our behavior and attitude. There are many examples of racism, and it exists everywhere and in everyone, but we must be careful how to treat people.The many problems of racism in our Arabian society are between students, between children in families, between adults in their workplace, and between relatives. Racism leads to discrimination which creates huge physical and psychological issues among young and old people, so we know that racism causes bad effects. Parents, teachers, and all adults must be aware on the way they treat children and students, so they don’t have to cause these bad effects on them. They should know also how not to make them become racist, and how to treat people well whatever their nationality, color, or skin was.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Our everyday experience - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 20 Words: 5926 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Topics: Life Experience Essay Did you like this example? Does God really exist? How can we know? If God made everything, who made God? In our everyday experience, just about everything seems to have a beginning. In fact, the laws of science show that even things which look the same through our lifetime, like the sun and other stars, are running down. The sun is using up its fuel at millions of tons each second. Since, therefore, it cannot last forever, it had to have a beginning. The same can be shown to be true for the entire universe. So when Christians claim that the God of the Bible created the entire universe, some will ask what seems a logical question, namely Where did God come from? Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Our everyday experience" essay for you Create order The Bible makes it clear in many places that God is outside of time. He is eternal, with no beginning or endHe is infinite! He also knows all things, being infinitely intelligent. Is this logical? Can modern science allow for such a notion? And how could you recognize the evidence for an intelligent Creator? The existence of God is taken for granted in the Bible. There is nowhere any argument to prove it. He who disbelieves this truth is spoken of as one devoid of understanding . The arguments generally adduced by theologians in proof of Gods existence are: The a priori argument, which is the testimony afforded by reason. The a posteriori argument, by which we proceed logically from the facts of experience to causes. These arguments are: The cosmological, by which it is proved that there must be a First Cause of all things, for every effect must have a cause. The teleological, or the argument from design. We see everywhere the operations of an intelligent Cause in nature. The moral argument, called also the anthropological argument, based on the moral consciousness and the history of mankind, which exhibits a moral order and purpose which can only be explained on the supposition of the existence of God. Conscience and human history testify that verily there is a God that judgeth in the earth. Matthew G. Easton How to recognize intelligence Scientists get excited about finding stone tools in a cave because these speak of intelligencea tool maker. They could not have designed themselves. Neither would anyone believe that the carved Presidents heads on Mt. Rushmore were the product of millions of years of chance erosion. We can recognize designthe evidence of the outworkings of intelligencein the man-made objects all around us. Similarly, in William Paleys famous argument, a watch implies a watchmaker.Today, however, a large proportion of people, including many leading scientists, believe that all plants and animals, including the incredibly complex brains of the people who make watches, motor cars, etc., were not designed by an intelligent God but rather came from an unintelligent evolutionary process. But is this a defensible position? Design in living things Molecular biologist Dr. Michael Denton, writing as an agnostic, concluded: Alongside the level of ingenuity and complexity exhibited by the molecular machinery of life, even our most advanced [twentieth century technology appears] clumsy. It would be an illusion to think that what we are aware of at present is any more than a fraction of the full extent of biological design. In practically every field of fundamental biological research ever-increasing levels of design and complexity are being revealed at an ever-accelerating rate. The world-renowned crusader for Darwinism and atheism, Prof. Richard Dawkins, states: We have seen that living things are too improbable and too beautifully designed to have come into existence by chance. Thus, even the most ardent atheist concedes that design is all around us. To a Christian, the design we see all around us is totally consistent with the Bibles explanation that God created all. However, evolutionists like Dawkins reject the idea of a Designer. He comments (emphasis added): All appearance to the contrary, the only watchmaker in nature is the blind forces of physics, albeit deployed in a very special way. A true watchmaker has foresight: he designs his cogs and springs, and plans their interconnections, with future purpose in his minds eye. Natural selection, the blind, unconscious, automatic process which Darwin discovered, and which we now know is the explanation for the existence and apparently purposeful form of all life, has no purpose in mind It has no mind It does not plan for the future it is the blind watchmaker. Selection and design Life is built on information, contained in that molecule of heredity, DNA. Dawkins believes that natural selectionand mutations (blind, purposeless copying mistakes in this DNA) together provide the mechanism for producing the vast amounts of information responsible for the design in living things. Natural selection is a logical process that can be observed. However, selection can only operate on the information already contained in genesit does not produce new information.distinct kinds of animals and plants, each to reproduce after its own kind. One can observe great variation in a kind,and see the results of natural selection. For instance, dingoes, wolves and coyotes have developed over time as a result of natural selection operating on the information in the genes of the wolf/dog kind. But no new information was producedthese varieties have resulted from rearrangement, and sorting out, of the information in the original dog kind. One kind has never been observed to change into a totally different kind with new information that previously did not exist! Without a way to increase information, natural selection will not work as a mechanism for evolution. Evolutionists agree with this, but they believe that mutations somehow provide the new information for natural selection to act upon. Can mutations produce new information? Actually, it is now clear that the answer is no! Dr. Lee Spetner, a highly qualified scientist who taught information and communication theory at Johns Hopkins University, makes this abundantly clear in his recent book: In this chapter Ill bring several examples of evolution, [i.e., instances alleged to be examples of evolution] particularly mutations, and show that information is not increased But in all the reading Ive done in the life-sciences literature, Ive never found a mutation that added information. All point mutations that have been studied on the molecular level turn out to reduce the genetic information and not to increase it. The NDT [neo-Darwinian theory] is supposed to explain how the information of life has been built up by evolution. The essential biological difference between a human and a bacterium is in the information they contain. All other biological differences follow from that. The human genome has much more information than does the bacterial genome. Information cannot be built up by mutations that lose it. A business cant make money by losing it a little at a time. Evolutionary scientists have no way around the conclusions that many scientists, including Dr. Spetner, have come to. Mutations do not work as a mechanism to fuel the evolutionary process. [For further information, see: Can genetic mutations produce positive changes in living creatures? Answer] More problems! Scientists have found that within the cell, there are thousands of what can be called biochemical machines. All of their parts have to be in place simultaneously or the cell cant function. Things which were thought to be simple mechanisms, such as being able to sense light and turn it into electrical impulses, are in fact highly complicated. Since life is built on these machines, the idea that natural processes could have made a living system is untenable. Biochemist Dr. Michael Behe uses the term irreducible complexity in describing such biochemical machines. systems of horrendous, irreducible complexity inhabit the cell. The resulting realization that life was designed by an intelligence is a shock to us in the twentieth century who have gotten used to thinking of life as the result of simple natural laws. But other centuries have had their shocks, and there is no reason to suppose that we should escape them. Richard Dawkins recognizes this problem of needing machinery to start with when he states: The theory of the blind watchmaker is extremely powerful given that we are allowed to assume replication and hence cumulative selection. But if replication needs complex machinery, since the only way we know for complex machinery ultimately to come into existence is cumulative selection, we have a problem. A problem indeed! The more we look into the workings of life, the more complicated it gets, and the more we see that life could not arise by itself. Not only is a source of information needed, but the complex machines of the chemistry of life need to be in existence right from the start! A greater problem still! Some still try to insist that the machinery of the first cell could have arisen by pure chance. For instance, they say, by randomly drawing alphabet letters in sequence from a hat, sometimes you will get a simple word like BAT.So given long time periods, why couldnt even more complex information arise by chance? However, what would the word BAT mean to a German or Chinese speaker? The point is that an order of letters is meaningless unless there is a language convention and a translation system in place which makes it meaningful! In a cell, there is such a system (other molecules) that makes the order on the DNA meaningful. DNA without the language/translation system is meaningless, and these systems without the DNA wouldnt work either. The other complication is that the translation machinery which reads the order of the letters in the DNA is itself specified by the DNA! This is another one of those machines that needs to be fully-formed or life wont work. Can information arise from non-information? Dr. Werner Gitt, Director and Professor at the German Federal Institute of Physics and Technology, makes it clear that one of the things we know absolutely for sure from science, is that information cannot arise from disorder by chance. It always takes (greater) information to produce information, and ultimately information is the result of intelligence: A code system is always the result of a mental process (it requires an intelligent origin or inventor) It should be emphasized that matter as such is unable to generate any code. All experiences indicate that a thinking being voluntarily exercising his own free will, cognition, and creativity, is required. There is no known natural law through which matter can give rise to information, neither is any physical process or material phenomenon known that can do this. What is the source of the information? We can therefore deduce that the huge amount of information in living things must originally have come from an intelligence, which had to have been far superior to ours, as scientists are revealing every day. But then, some will say that such a source would have to be caused by something with even greater information/intelligence. However, if they reason like this, one could ask where this greater information/intelligence came from? And then where did that one come from . one could extrapolate to infinity, for ever, unless . Unless there was a source of infinite intelligence, beyond our finite understanding. But isnt this what the Bible indicates when we read, In the beginning God .? The God of the Bible is an infinite being not bound by limitations of time, space, knowledge, or anything else. So which is the logically defensible position?that matter eternally existed (or came into existence by itself for no reason), and then by itself arranged itself into information systems against everything observed in real science? Or that a being with infinite intelligence,created information systems for life to exist, agreeing with real science? The answer seems obvious, so why dont all intelligent scientists accept this? Michael Behe answers: Many people, including many important and well-respected scientists, just dont want there to be anything beyond nature. They dont want a supernatural being to affect nature, no matter how brief or constructive the interaction may have been. In other words . they bring an a priori philosophical commitment to their science that restricts what kinds of explanations they will accept about the physical world. Sometimes this leads to rather odd behavior. The crux of the matter is this: If one accepts there is a God who created us, then that God also owns us. He thus has a right to set the rules by which we must live. In the Bible, He has revealed to us that we are in rebellion against our Creator. Because of this rebellion called sin, our physical bodies are sentenced to deathbut we will live on, either with God, or without Him in a place of judgment. But the good news is that our Creator provided, through the cross of Jesus Christ, a means of deliverance for our sin of rebellion, so that those who come to Him in faith, in repentance for their sin, can receive the forgiveness of a Holy God and spend forever with their Lord. [Watch The HOPE on-line (streaming video)] So who created God? By definition, an infinite, eternal being has always existedno one created God. He is the self-existing onethe great I am of the Bible.19 He is outside of time; in fact, He created time. You might say, But that means I have to accept this by faith, as I cant understand it. We read in the book of Hebrews, But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him (Hebrews 11:6). But this is not blind faith, as some think. In fact, the evolutionists who deny God have a blind faiththey have to believe something that is against real sciencenamely, that information can arise from disorder by chance. Can you believe in the existence of something that you cannot see? Have you ever seen your own brain? We all believe in many things that we have never seen. Have you ever seen the wind? Have you seen history? We see the effects of the wind, but the wind is invisible. We have records of history, but it is by faith we believe that certain historical events happened. Television waves are invisible, but an antenna and a receiver can detect their presence. Do you know that you have a receiver? Prior to becoming a child of God, your receiver (your spirit) is dead because of sin (see Ephesians 2:1). You need to be plugged into the life of God, and then you will come alive and be aware of the invisible spiritual realm. Learn more about God and his plan for your life Adapted from author Ray Comfort See these information sources for evidence of God and the accuracy of His Word The Christian faith is not a blind faith; it is a logically defensible faith. This is why the Bible makes it clear that anyone who does not believe in God is without excuse: For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse (Romans 1:20). For a more in-depth article, read: Who created God? Who created God? A number of skeptics ask this question. But God by definition is the uncreated creator of the universe, so the question Who created God? is illogical, just like To whom is the bachelor married? So a more sophisticated questioner might ask: If the universe needs a cause, then why doesnt God need a cause? And if God doesnt need a cause, why should the universe need a cause? In reply, Christians should use the following reasoning: Everything which has a beginning has a cause.1 The universe has a beginning. Therefore the universe has a cause. Its important to stress the words in bold type. The universe requires a cause because it had a beginning, as will be shown below. God, unlike the universe, had no beginning, so doesnt need a cause. In addition, Einsteins general relativity, which has much experimental support, shows that time is linked to matter and space. So time itself would have begun along with matter and space. Since God, by definition, is the creator of the whole universe, he is the creator of time. Therefore He is not limited by the time dimension He created, so has no beginning in time God is the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity (Isaiah 57:15). Therefore He doesnt have a cause. In contrast, there is good evidence that the universe had a beginning. This can be shown from the Laws of Thermodynamics, the most fundamental laws of the physical sciences. 1st Law: The total amount of mass-energy in the universe is constant. 2nd Law: The amount of energy available for work is running out, or entropy is increasing to a maximum. If the total amount of mass-energy is limited, and the amount of usable energy is decreasing, then the universe cannot have existed forever, otherwise it would already have exhausted all usable energy the heat death of the universe. For example, all radioactive atoms would have decayed, every part of the universe would be the same temperature, and no further work would be possible. So the obvious corollary is that the universe began a finite time ago with a lot of usable energy, and is now running down. Now, what if the questioner accepts that the universe had a beginning, but not that it needs a cause? But it is self-evident that things that begin have a cause no-one really denies it in his heart. All science and history would collapse if this law of cause and effect were denied. So would all law enforcement, if the police didnt think they needed to find a cause for a stabbed body or a burgled house. Also, the universe cannot be self-caused nothing can create itself, because that would mean that it existed before it came into existence, which is a logical absurdity. IN SUMMARY The universe (including time itself) can be shown to have had a beginning. It is unreasonable to believe something could begin to exist without a cause. The universe therefore requires a cause, just as Romans 1:20 teach. God, as creator of time, is outside of time. Since therefore He has no beginning in time, He has always existed, so doesnt need a cause. OBJECTIONS There are only two ways to refute an argument: Show that it is logically invalid Show that at least one of the premises is false. Is the argument valid? A valid argument is one where it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false. Note that validity does not depend on the truth of the premises, but on the form of the argument. The argument in this article is valid; it is of the same form as: All whales have backbones; Moby Dick is a whale; therefore Moby Dick has a backbone. So the only hope for the skeptic is to dispute one or both of the premises. Are the premises true? 1. Does the universe have a beginning? Oscillating universe ideas were popularized by atheists like the late Carl Sagan and Isaac Asimov solely to avoid the notion of a beginning, with its implications of a Creator. But as shown above, the Laws of Thermodynamics undercut that argument. Even an oscillating universe cannot overcome those laws. Each one of the hypothetical cycles would exhaust more and more usable energy. This means every cycle would be larger and longer than the previous one, so looking back in time there would be smaller and smaller cycles. So the multicycle model could have an infinite future, but can only have a finite past.2 Also, there are many lines of evidence showing that there is far too little mass for gravity to stop expansion and allow cycling in the first place, i.e., the universe is open. According to the best estimates (even granting old-earth assumptions), the universe still has only about half the mass needed for re-contraction. This includes the combined total of both luminous matter and non-luminous matter (found in galactic halos), as well as any possible contribution of neutrinos to total mass.3 Some recent evidence for an open universe comes from the number of light-bending gravitational lenses in the sky.6 It seems there is only 40-80% of the required matter to cause a big crunch. Incidentally, this low mass is also a major problem for the currently fashionable inflationary version of the big bang theory, as this predicts a mass density just on the threshold of collapse a flat universe. Finally, no known mechanism would allow a bounce back after a hypothetical big crunch.7 As the late Professor Beatrice Tinsley of Yale explained, even though the mathematics say that the universe oscillates, There is no known physical mechanism to reverse a catastrophic big crunch. Off the paper and into the real world of physics, those models start from the Big Bang, expand, collapse, and thats the end. 2. Denial of cause and effect Some physicists assert that quantum mechanics violates this cause/effect principle and can produce something from nothing. For instance, Paul Davies writes: spacetime could appear out of nothingness as a result of a quantum transition. Particles can appear out of nowhere without specific causation Yet the world of quantum mechanics routinely produces something out of nothing.9 But this is a gross misapplication of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics never produces something out of nothing. Davies himself admitted on the previous page that his scenario should not be taken too seriously. Theories that the universe is a quantum fluctuation must presuppose that there was something to fluctuate their quantum vacuum is a lot of matter-antimatter potential not nothing. Also, I have plenty of theoretical and practical experience at quantum mechanics (QM) from my doctoral thesis work. For example, Raman spectroscopy is a QM phenomenon, but from the wavenumber and intensity of the spectral bands, we can work out the masses of the atoms and force constants of the bonds causing the bands. To help the atheist position that the universe came into existence without a cause, one would need to find Raman bands appearing without being caused by transitions in vibrational quantum states, or alpha particles appearing without pre-existing nuclei, etc. If QM was as acausal as some people think, then we should not assume that these phenomena have a cause. Then I may as well burn my Ph.D. thesis, and all the spectroscopy journals should quit, as should any nuclear physics research. Also, if there is no cause, there is no explanation why this particular universe appeared at a particular time, nor why it was a universe and not, say, a banana or cat which appeared. This universe cant have any properties to explain its preferential coming into existence, because it wouldnt have any properties until it actually came into existence. Is creation by God rational? A last desperate tactic by skeptics to avoid a theistic conclusion is to assert that creation in time is incoherent. Davies correctly points out that since time itself began with the beginning of the universe, it is meaningless to talk about what happened before the universe began. But he claims that causes must precede their effects. So if nothing happened before the universe began, then (according to Davies) it is meaningless to discuss the cause of the universes beginning. But the philosopher (and New Testament scholar) William Lane Craig, in a useful critique of Davies,10 pointed out that Davies is deficient in philosophical knowledge. Philosophers have long discussed the notion of simultaneous causation. Immanuel Kant (17241804) gave the example of a weight resting on a cushion simultaneously causing a depression in it. Craig says: The first moment of time is the moment of Gods creative act and of creations simultaneous coming to be. Some skeptics claim that all this analysis is tentative, because that is the nature of science. So this cant be used to prove creation by God. Of course, skeptics cant have it both ways: saying that the Bible is wrong because science has proved it so, but if science appears consistent with the Bible, then well, science is tentative anyway. A final thought The Bible informs us that time is a dimension that God created, into which man was subjected. It even tells us that one day time will no longer exist. That will be called eternity. God Himself dwells outside of the dimension He created (Titus 1:2). He dwells in eternity and is not subject to time. God spoke history before it came into being. He can move through time as a man flips through a history book. Because we live in the dimension of time, it is impossible for us to fully understand anything that does not have a beginning and an end. Simply accept that fact, and believe the concept of Gods eternal nature the same way you believe the concept of space having no beginning and endby faitheven though such thoughts put a strain on our distinctly insufficient cerebrum. Paul S. Taylor, adapted from author Ray Comfort Further Reading More information can be found in the following works. Unfortunately they are too friendly towards the unscriptural big bang theory with its billions of years of death, suffering and disease before Adams sin. But the above arguments are perfectly consistent with a recent creation in six consecutive normal days, as taught by Scripture. Craig, W.L., Apologetics: An Introduction (Chicago: Moody, 1984). Craig, W.L. online article The Existence of God and the Beginning of the Universe Geisler, N.L., Christian Apologetics (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker, 1976). How does archaeology conclusively demonstrate the Bible to be reliable and unique among all the holy books of world religions? Archaeological discoveries verify the historical reliability of the Old and New Testaments. When compared to other religious books, the titles, and events mentioned in the Bible; and the language and literary formats used to compose the Bible. Many scholars today question the validity of Biblical accounts, supposedly based on the findings of archaeology (i.e. misinterpretation of evidence, lack of evidence, or poor scholarship) and not with the Bible. How can archaeology prove helpful to someone seeking for truth to the basic questions about life? The discoveries of archaeology can be helpful in removing doubts that a person might have about the historical trustworthiness of the Bible. The places, and events of the Bible are real. What Gods Word? Any one discovery can be explained away as coincidence, or an alternative interpretation can be given to disassociate it from the Bible. It is the weight of a myriad of discoveries that demonstrates the Bible to be the Word of God. These discoveries fall into three categories: Archaeological evidence demonstrates the historical and cultural accuracy of the Bible. The Bibles message of a salvation stands in sharp contrast to the pagan fertility religions of the ancient world as, revealed by archaeology. Archaeological findings demonstrate that the Biblical prophets accurately predicted events hundreds of years before they occurredsomething that lies beyond the capability of mere men. Where did Cain get his wife? We dont even know her name, yet she was discussed at the wife in history? Scripture and, thus, the Christian faith. For instance, at the historic Scopes trial in Tennessee in 1925, William Jennings Bryan, the prosecutor who stood for the Christian faith, failed to answer the question about [3] lawyer Clarence Darrow. The worlds press was focused on this trial, and what they heard has affected Christianity to this dayChristians are seen as unable to defend the biblical record. And skeptics then make the logically fallacious jump of concluding that the biblical record is indefensible! The agnostic Carl Sagan used this same question in his book ContactContact, which was based on Sagans book, also used it. In the book, the fictional character Ellie could not get answers about [6] Sagan cleverly used common questionssuch as Who was Cains wife?questions that are often directed at Christians in an attempt to prove the Bible cannot be defended. Sadly, most Christians probably could not answer these questions! And yet, there are answers. But, since most churches are lacking in the teaching of 1 Peter 3:15). Why is it important? Many skeptics have claimed that, for New Testament doctrines depend. Defenders of the Genesis 4:1-5:5.) Before we answer this question, we will first show how important it is to the meaning of the gospel. The first man Therefore, even as through one man Romans 5:12). We read in God did not start by making a whole group of men. The sin of rebellion, also passed on to all his descendants. Since return to God! Because a man brought Romans 3:23). What is the solution? The Last Adam pay the penalty for sin: For since by a man came [8] God. Since the Bible describes all human beings as gospel could not be explained or defended. The Hebrews 2:11-18). Thus, only descendants of the first man saved. All related Thus, there was only one man at the beginningmade from the Genesis 2:7). This also means that Adams descendants. The first woman In Eveshe was the first woman. marriage of one man to one woman. Also, in animals, he could not find a matethere was no one of his kind. All this makes it obvious that there was only one woman, Eves descendants. If Christians cannot defend that all humans (including gospel and all that it teaches. Cains brothers and sisters Genesis 4:25), were part of the first generation of children ever born on this earth. Even though only these three males are mentioned by name, Genesis 5:3) before Seth was born. During their lives, Adams children, as says the old tradition, was thirty-three sons and twenty-three daughters. The Genesis 1:28). The wife If we now work totally from Scripture, without any personal prejudices or other extra-biblical ideas, then back at the beginning, when there was only the first generation, brothers would have had to have married sisters or there would be no more generations! We are not told when marriages and children, but we can say for certain that some brothers had to marry their sisters at the beginning of human history. But what about Gods Laws? Many people immediately reject the conclusion that Gods law originally when close relatives (even brothers and sisters) married each other. Remember that Moses laws that forbade such marriages. Biological deformities Today, brothers and sisters (and half-brothers and half-sisters, etc.) are not permitted by law to marry because their children have an unacceptably high risk of being deformed. The more closely the parents are related, the more likely it is that any offspring will be deformed. There is a very sound genetic reason for such laws that is easy to understand. Every person has two sets of genes, there being some 130,000 pairs that specify how a person is put together and functions. Each person inherits one gene of each pair from each parent. Unfortunately, genes today contain many mistakes (because of Curse), and these mistakes show up in a variety of ways. For instance, some people let their hair grow over their ears to hide the fact that one ear is lower than the otheror perhaps someones nose is not quite in the middle of his or her face, or someones jaw is a little out of shapeand so on. Lets face it, the main reason we call each other normal is because of our common agreement to do so! The more distantly related parents are, the more likely it is that they will have different mistakes in their genes. Children, inheriting one set of genes from each parent, are likely to end up with pairs of genes containing a maximum of one bad gene in each pair. The good gene tends to override the bad so that a deformity (a serious one, anyway) does not occur. Instead of having totally deformed ears, for instance, a person may only have crooked ones! (Overall, though, the human race is slowly degenerating as mistakes accumulate, generation after generation.) However, the more closely related two people are, the more likely it is that they will have similar mistakes in their genes, since these have been inherited from the same parents. Therefore, a brother and a sister are more likely to have similar mistakes in their genes. A child of a union between such siblings could inherit the same bad gene on the same gene pair from both, resulting in two bad copies of the gene and serious defects. Romans 8:22). Over thousands of years, this degeneration has produced all sorts of genetic mistakes in living things. Gods approval, without any potential to produce deformed offspring. By the time of [12] (Also, there were plenty of people on the earth by then, and there was no reason for close relations to marry.) Cain and the Land of Nod Some claim that the passage in wife. And Enoch: and he built a city, and he called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch. From what has been stated previously, it is clear that all humans, wife. John Calvin, commenting on these verses, states: From the context we may gather that [13] [14] Others have argued that because Abels death (see below). Who was Cain fearful of? (Genesis 4:14) Some claim that there had to be lots of people on earth other than Abel. First of all, in the days before civil government was instituted to punish murderers (Cain was afraid of could not have been another race of people. Second, Genesis 4:3 states: And in the course of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering to the Lord. Note the phrase in the course of time. We know that Eve, involving several generations. Where did the technology come from? Some claim that for Nod and build a city he would have required a lot of technology that must have already been in that land, presumably developed by other races. However, brass and. Because of intense evolutionary indoctrination, many people today think that our generation is the most intelligent that has ever lived on this planet. But just because we have jet airplanes and computers, it does not mean that we are the most intelligent. Modern technology results from the accumulation of knowledge. We stand on the shoulders of those who have gone before us. Our brains have suffered from 6,000 years of the Eves children. Scripture gives us a glimpse of what appears to be great inventiveness from the beginning. Conclusion Many God has given to us. They try to interpret Scripture, but taking a secular way of thinking to the Bible, they are blinded to the simple answers. word of One who knows everything, and who is a reliable witness from the past. Thus, when we use Genesis as a basis for understanding history, we can make sense of questions that would otherwise be a mystery.

Friday, December 27, 2019

How to Find the Molecular Mass of a Compound

The molecular mass or molecular weight is the total mass of a compound. It is equal to the sum of the individual atomic masses of each atom in the molecule. Its easy to find the molecular mass of a compound with these steps: Determine the molecular formula of the molecule.Use the periodic table to determine the atomic mass of each element in the molecule.Multiply each elements atomic mass by the number of atoms of that element in the molecule. This number is represented by the subscript next to the element symbol in the molecular formula.Add these values together for each different atom in the molecule. The total will be the molecular mass of the compound. Example of Simple Molecular Mass Calculation For example, to find the molecular mass of NH3, the first step is to look up the atomic masses of nitrogen (N) and hydrogen (H). H 1.00794N 14.0067 Next, multiply the atomic mass of each atom by the number of atoms in the compound. There is one nitrogen atom (no subscript is given for one atom). There are three hydrogen atoms, as indicated by the subscript. molecular mass (1 x 14.0067) (3 x 1.00794)molecular mass 14.0067 3.02382molecular mass 17.0305 Note the calculator will give an answer of 17.03052, but the reported answer contains fewer significant figures because there are six significant digits in the atomic mass values used in the calculation. Example of Complex Molecular Mass Calculation Heres a more complicated example: Find the molecular mass (molecular weight) of Ca3(PO4)2. From the periodic table, the atomic masses of each element are: Ca 40.078P 30.973761O 15.9994 The tricky part is figuring out how many of each atom are present in the compound. There are three calcium atoms, two phosphorus atoms, and eight oxygen atoms. How did you get that? If part of the compound is in parentheses, multiply the subscript immediately following the element symbol by the subscript that closes the parentheses. molecular mass (40.078 x 3) (30.97361 x 2) (15.9994 x 8)molecular mass 120.234 61.94722 127.9952molecular mass 310.17642 (from the calculator)molecular mass 310.18 The final answer uses the correct number of significant figures. In this case, its five digits (from the atomic mass for calcium). Tips for Success Remember, if no subscript is given after an element symbol, it means there is one atom.A subscript applies to the atom symbol it follows. Multiply the subscript by the atoms atomic weight.Report your answer using the correct number of significant figures. This will be the smallest number of significant figures in the atomic mass values. Watch rules for rounding and truncating, which depend on the situation.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Mainstream Game Development is Predominately Designed by...

First of all, despite the gaming audience being half women, most AAA games are made focussed entirely on male in mind. Ken Levine himself said that â€Å"Bioshock Infinite† was marketed to appeal to frat boys. And Naughty Dog has revealed they didn’t want to see what women thought of â€Å"The Last of Us† and that they were trying to appeal exclusively to males. While the director of â€Å"Remember me† has said the female protagonist has been killed off by publishers because men allegedly don’t want to play as a â€Å"girly girl†. Mainstream game development is predominately designed by men, for men. In the same way female characters are being designed to appeal to men, so too are male characters, but not in the objectifying sense. Objectification is the†¦show more content†¦Some would say there are plenty of strong and powerful playable female characters such as Lara Croft from â€Å"Tomb Raider†. But even the best playable f emale characters are going to be inoffensively beautiful in some way shape or form. Lara Croft was a powerful and intelligent woman, but she was overly sexualised in the older games. In the latest â€Å"Tomb Raider† game she is attractive, realistically proportioned, properly clothed and is more human-like which makes her an acceptable sexualisation because she’s not objectified. Sexism in the Gaming Industry For 20 years the industrys attitude was women don’t play video games, although they are slowly changing their attitude because 48% of gamers are in fact female, there is still major sexism in the industry that remains. An indie female game developer – Zoe Quinn, was trying to release her game â€Å"Depression Quest†, an interactive fiction game where you play as someone living with depression, on to Stream Greenlight. Evidently her gender, or her desire to design game, or some combination of the two caused her to receive men dialling her number to spout rape threats, sexist comments and telling her to kill herself. The abuse got so bad that Zoe had to change her phone number. She eventually took the game down because she couldn’t handle the abuse anymore. She then in the long run decided to try Greenlight again, she stated that, â€Å"I thought since the game got into [International independent gameShow MoreRelatedDiversity at The National Basketball Asso ciation Essay2716 Words   |  11 Pagescommunity outreach programs is its NBA Cares program. A program designed to spread the diversity throughout the world with the sport of basketball. â€Å"The NBAs community outreach programs continue to address social issues, including education, environmental protection, health and wellness, and youth and family development. 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